PANEL 9: Maritime Security among State and Non-State Actors in East Asia

Chair and Discussant: Rhisan Mae E. Morales (Ateneo de Davao University)
– Assistant Professor, International Studies department
Panel’s abstract: This panel seeks to highlight the growing traditional and non-traditional security concerns in the maritime commons of East Asia. Tensions between China and Japan’s rival claims in the East China Sea have caused the latter’s reinterpretation of a key constitutional clause which has been viewed as a limit to address national security threats. Yet in the Sulawesi Sea non-traditional security concerns take center stage. This security concern does not threaten states per se but rather non-state actors like individuals and groups. The 2015 maritime delimitation between the Philippines and Indonesia poses a threat to the security of local fishers whose livelihood is dependent on the unbounded seas. Furthermore the consolidation of the Philippine and Indonesian nation-states also contributed to the status of statelessness of migrant people. Nevertheless hope is seen in the human security framework which prioritizes the welfare of human beings.

9.1 Reinterpretation of Article 9: Influence to U.S. – Japan Security Relations
Sarip Aila A. Ampatuan, Kristin Joy P. Escraman, and Rogin Arvin B. Perez (Ateneo de Davao University)
– Advanced undergraduate students, International Studies department
Abstract: This study seeks to uncover how the Japanese pacifist clause, or the Article 9 of the 1947 Japanese Constitution, was reinterpreted through studying the foreign policy of Prime Minister Shinzō Abe and how it affected the reinterpretation. This study also seeks to determine how the reinterpretation of Article 9 will influence the security relations of Japan and the United States of America. Through content and thematic analysis, the speeches, pronouncements, and other texts from the prime minister during his first term from 2006 to 2007 and his second term from 2012 to September 2016 were examined to find out more about the prime minister’s foreign policy direction. Secondary sources from online articles and books were also used. Upon examination of these texts, it was discovered that themes from the foreign policy of the prime minister, which resulted from different domestic and international factors, pushed forth the reinterpretation of Article 9. This research provides information on the influence of the foreign policy of Prime Minister Shinzō Abe on the reinterpretation and the influence of the reinterpretation on U.S. – Japan security relations. Japan’s reinterpretation of its Article 9 now brings forth Japan as more proactive in the international arena, which has implications for the US-Japan security relations.

9.2 A Case Analysis of the Customary Fishing Practices of the Palangri and Pukotero Fisherfolk in the Sulawesi Sea
John Mark Techo, Chris Norwin Nisperos, Paolo Patawaran, and Andrian Pulma (Ateneo de Davao University)
– Advanced undergraduate students, International Studies department
Abstract: The study sought to shed light on the normative fishing practices of fisherfolks in the Sulawesi Sea. It became apparent that the delineation agreement between the Republic of the Philippines and the Republic of Indonesia had affected the practices of fisherfolks. The researchers sought to first, record the normative fishing practices of the fisherfolk in the Sulawesi. Second, make clear as to how these practices reconciled with previous agreements and maritime law, and finally, determine how the 2015 Philippine-Indonesian Maritime Delineation Agreement affected those same normative fishing practices. The respondents interviewed were fisherfolk from General Santos City, who sailed within the waters of the Sulawesi Sea. The data was then analyzed through Anthony Giddens’s Structuration theory. The results were as follows. First, being that the normative fishing practices revolved around dominance; through the claiming of fishing area in a scramble to capitalize on the marine resources present in the Sulawesi Sea. Second that the maritime fishing practices; in light of the agreements between Philippine fishing companies and Indonesian authorities paint a picture of unfair resource allocation advantageous to the Filipino fisherfolks. This allocation then led to dominance of the Philippine fishing industry in the region. Lastly, that the stricter border protocols of Indonesia, implemented after the ratification of the 2015 Philippine-Indonesian Maritime Delineation Agreement, halted the normative fishing practices of those fishing within Indonesian waters. Filipino fisherfolks unable to fish within Indonesian waters, found other means of fishing that did not involve entering Indonesian territory.

9.3 Human Security Analysis of Undocumented People of Indonesian Descent in the Municipality of Sarangani, Davao Occidental, Philippines
Alexis Kate Tigbao, Lara Krystel Tongco, and Ana Mariel Villarba (Ateneo de Davao University)
– Advanced undergraduate students, International Studies department
Abstract: Being undocumented poses many threats and insecurities to an individual. Their status makes them vulnerable to all kinds of abuses. Drawing from in-depth interviews with People of Indonesian Descents (PIDs) and key informants, this study sought to discover the insecurities experienced by these irregular migrants residing in the Municipality of Sarangani and for the local government to formulate policies regarding the situation of the PIDs. The study revolved around the Human Security Framework that specifically focuses on seven kinds of security: food, health, economic, political, environmental, community, and personal. It was found out that the PIDs security needs in these seven aspects were addressed, though they were not fully secured in some aspects given the economic conditions of the municipality itself. Moreover, the precarious status of their citizenship does not affect their capacity to access government services and welfare programs. The municipality disregarded the unclear status of the citizenship of the PIDs and perceived them as part of the community, enabling them to possess rights the same as the Filipinos in the area.

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