Other Forms of the ‘International’: Islam, Subaltern, and Neutrality

The manifold societal expressions of the “International” substantiates its varied forms and approaches. Forms that are grounded from Islam, integrated subaltern, local values to neutrality of small states. The first paper informs how five distinct ideologies shaped U.S. foreign policy towards the Muslim world, and how the succeeding paper on Islamic puritanism (salafiyyah) affirms it by showing a case of the extent of Saudi-Salafi influence among Muslims in the Philippines. Some aspects of its influence directs the Duterte Foreign Policy paper, supported by local values of tapang (bravery) and malasakit (concern), as it deals with domestic politics and foreign policy of overseas Filipino workers in the Middle East. Philippines role in the American hegemony in East Asia, described as “integrated subaltern” by the fourth paper, utilizes mechanisms of domination disguised as apparatus of de-marginalization in the operations of hegemonic complexity. However, the last paper argues for the neutrality of small states to maintain its secured sovereignty in the international system. These varied expressions of the International proved the glaring plurality of multiple societies beyond the mainstream Western IR narratives.

When: Friday, March 29, 4:00 PM – 5:45 PM
Where: Osgoode West, Hilton Toronto
Chair and Discussant:
Alan Chong (S Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University)


1. The Ottoman Empire: A Durably Diverse Order?
Author: Einar Wigen (University of Oslo)

2. Ideology and American Policies in the Islamic World: Can Foreign Policy be Islamophobic?
Author: Muqtedar Khan (University of Delaware)

3. International Saudi-Salafiyyah in the Philippines
Author: Nassef Manabilang Adiong (PHISO and University of the Philippines Diliman)

4. Internationalizing Tapang and Malasakit: Philippine Perspective on Duterte Foreign Policy
Author: Ricardo Roy Lopez (PHISO and University of the Philippines Diliman)

5. The Integrated Subaltern: Mindanao, the Philippines and U.S. Hegemony in East Asia
Author: Carmina Yu Untalan (Osaka University)

Sponsored by:
– ISA Global South Caucus
– ISA Theory
– ISA Historical International Relations

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