Chapter 3: “Constantino revisited: The ‘miseducation’ and diplomacy of the Filipinos” authored by Erickson D. Calata
In his essay ‘The Miseducation of the Filipino’, Renato Constantino argues that the American-instituted educational system is geared towards subjugating the minds of Filipinos for colonial mentality while promoting passivity to inhibit the contestation of American hegemony in the Philippines. He further argued that the most detrimental consequence of this ‘Miseducation’ was the neglect of indigenous culture, nationalism, and local knowledge. This chapter uses Constantino’s concept of the ‘Miseducation of the Filipino’ as a framework for understanding how American colonialism from the 1900s to 1946 has inculcated ‘miseducated diplomacy’ in the practice of international relations. It begins with the brief historiography of the works of Constantino on American colonialism, Filipino nationalism, and miseducation. Second, the author deconstructs Constantino’s historical narratives to infer their relevance to the concept of the international vis-à-vis hegemony and diplomacy. Lastly, the author conceptualizes ‘miseducated diplomacy’ as the dictated and directed mode of diplomacy based on the standard of colonial masters that was prompted by a colonial system of education.
“International Studies in the Philippines: Mapping New Frontiers in Theory and Practice” Edited by Frances Antoinette Cruz & Nassef Manabilang Adiong